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Chicago 1920 Navigation menu VideoA Train Trip Through 1920s North Chicago Bobby Butler scanned the maps added in Newmanology on Twitter Newmanology During the s, s, and s, there Willam Hill a slow growth in the planning role of municipal governments in many large American cities, including Chicago. Numerous southern blues and jazz musicians made a name for themselves Ignition Bitcoin Welcome Bonus the city as they had done in the s. Retrieved September 14,
I recommend that you read the notes for the Enumeration Districts and Wards for possible discrepancies and alternative Districts to research.
This site is a wonderful addition to our Cook County Genealogy resources! Chicago City Ward Boundaries. Ward 1 Enumeration District Descriptions.
Ward 2 Enumeration District Descriptions. Ward 3 Enumeration District Descriptions. Ward 4 Enumeration District Descriptions.
Ward 5 Enumeration District Descriptions. Ward 6 Enumeration District Descriptions. Ward 7 Enumeration District Descriptions. In addition, they were likely to kill all members of the family, and then commit suicide in the ultimate attempt at maintaining control.
Italian men killed family members to save a gender-based ideal of respectability that entailed patriarchal control over women and family reputation.
African American men, like the Germans, often murdered in response to economic conditions but not over desperation about the future. Like the Italians, the killers tended to be young, but family honor was not usually at stake.
Instead, black men murdered to regain control of wives and lovers who resisted their patriarchal "rights". Progressive reformers in the business community created the Chicago Crime Commission CCC in after an investigation into a robbery at a factory showed the city's criminal justice system was deficient.
The CCC initially served as a watchdog of the justice system. After its suggestion that the city's justice system begin collecting criminal records was rejected, the CCC assumed a more active role in fighting crime.
The commission's role expanded further after Frank J. Loesch became president in Loesch recognized the need to eliminate the glamor that Chicago's media typically attributed to criminals.
Determined to expose the violence of the crime world, Loesch drafted a list of "public enemies"; among them was Al Capone , whom he made a scapegoat for widespread social problems.
After the passage of Prohibition , the s brought international notoriety to Chicago. Bootleggers and smugglers bringing in liquor from Canada formed powerful gangs.
They competed with each other for lucrative profits, and to evade the police, to bring liquor to speakeasies and private clients.
The most notorious was Al Capone. From to , migrations swelled, attracting to the city of mostly unskilled Catholic and Jewish immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe, including Italians, Greeks, Czechs, Poles, Lithuanians, Ukrainians, Hungarians, and Slovaks.
World War I cut off immigration from Europe, which brought hundreds of thousands of southern blacks and whites into Northern cities to fill in the labor shortages.
The heavy annual turnover of ethnic populations ended, and the groups stabilized, each favoring specific neighborhoods. While whites from rural areas arrived and generally settled in the suburban parts of the city, large numbers of blacks from the South arrived as well.
Although restricted by segregation and competing ethnic groups such as the Irish, gradually continued black migration caused this community to expand, as well as the black neighborhoods on the near West Side.
These were de facto segregated areas few blacks were tolerated in ethnic white neighborhoods ; the Irish and ethnic groups who had been longer in the city began to move to outer areas and the suburbs.
After World War II, the city built public housing for working-class families to upgrade residential quality. The high-rise design of such public housing proved a problem when industrial jobs left the city and poor families became concentrated in the facilities.
After , public housing high rises anchored poor black neighborhoods south and west of the Loop. In the s, high-rise luxury apartments were constructed along the lakefront north of the Loop, continuing into the 21st century.
They attracted wealthy residents but few families with children, as wealthier families moved to suburbs for the schools. There were problems in the public school system; mostly Catholic students attended schools in the large parochial system, which was of middling quality.
The northern and western suburbs developed some of the best public schools in the nation, which were strongly supported by their wealthier residents.
The suburban trend accelerated after , with the construction of highways and train lines that made commuting easier.
Middle-class Chicagoans headed to the outlying areas of the city, and then into the Cook County and Dupage County suburbs. As ethnic Jews and Irish rose in economic class, they left the city and headed north.
Well-educated migrants from around the country moved to the far suburbs. Chicago's Polonia sustained diverse political cultures in the early twentieth century, each with its own newspaper.
The decision to subscribe to a particular paper reaffirmed a particular ideology or institutional network based on ethnicity and class, which lent itself to different alliances and different strategies.
With new populations competing for limited housing and jobs, especially on the South Side, social tensions rose in the city. Postwar years were more difficult.
Black veterans looked for more respect for having served their nation, and some whites resented it. In , the Chicago race riot erupted, in what became known as "Red Summer", when other major cities also suffered mass racial violence based in competition for jobs and housing as the country tried to absorb veterans in the postwar years.
During the riot, thirty-eight people died 23 black and 15 white and over five hundred were injured.
Much of the violence against blacks in Chicago was led by members of ethnic Irish athletic clubs, who had much political power in the city and defended their "territory" against African Americans.
As was typical in these occurrences, more blacks than whites died in the violence. Concentrating the family resources to achieve home ownership was a common strategy in the ethnic European neighborhoods.
It meant sacrificing current consumption, and pulling children out of school as soon as they could earn a wage. By , working-class ethnic immigrants owned homes at higher rates than native-born people.
After borrowing from friends and building associations, immigrants kept boarders, grew market gardens, and opened home-based commercial laundries, eroding home-work distinctions, while sending out women and children to work to repay loans.
They sought not middle-class upward mobility but the security of home ownership. Many social workers wanted them to pursue upward job mobility which required more education , but realtors asserted that houses were better than a bank for a poor man.
With hindsight, and considering uninsured banks' precariousness, this appears to have been true. Chicago's workers made immense sacrifices for home ownership, contributing to Chicago's sprawling suburban geography and to modern myths about the American dream.
The Jewish community, by contrast, rented apartments and maximized education and upward mobility for the next generation. Beginning in the s, waves of Hispanic immigrants began to arrive.
During the s, Hispanic immigrants were more likely to be from Central and South America. After and the change in US immigration laws, numerous Asian immigrants came; the largest proportion were well-educated Indians and Chinese, who generally settled directly in the suburbs.
By the s gentrification began in the city, in some cases with people renovating housing in old inner city neighborhoods, and attracting singles and gay people.
After Chicago was a heavily unionized city, apart from the factories which were non-union until the s. The IWW was founded in Chicago in June at a convention of socialists, anarchists, and radical trade unionists from all over the United States.
The Railroad brotherhoods were strong, as were the crafts unions affiliated with the American Federation of Labor.
The AFL unions operated through the Chicago Federation of Labor to minimize jurisdictional conflicts, which caused many strikes as two unions battled to control a work site.
The unionized teamsters in Chicago enjoyed an unusually strong bargaining position when they contended with employers around the city, or supported another union in a specific strike.
Their wagons could easily be positioned to disrupt streetcars and block traffic. In addition, their families and neighborhood supporters often surrounded and attacked the wagons of nonunion teamsters who were strikebreaking.
When the teamsters used their clout to engage in sympathy strikes, employers decided to coordinate their antiunion efforts, claiming that the teamsters held too much power over commerce in their control of the streets.
The teamsters' strike in represented a clash both over labor issues and the public nature of the streets.
To the employers, the streets were arteries for commerce, while to the teamsters, they remained public spaces integral to their neighborhoods.
On December 2, , the world's first controlled nuclear reaction was conducted at the University of Chicago as part of the top secret Manhattan Project.
The city produced more steel than the United Kingdom during the war, and surpassed Nazi Germany's output in after barely missing in Over 1, companies produced everything from field rations to parachutes to torpedoes, while new aircraft plants employed , in the construction of engines, aluminum sheeting, bombsights, and other components.
The Great Migration , which had been on pause due to the Depression, resumed at an even faster pace as the - period, as hundreds of thousands of black Americans arrived in the city to work in the steel mills, railroads, and shipping yards.
Returning World War II veterans and immigrants from Europe in particular Displaced Persons from Eastern Europe created a postwar economic boom and led to the development of huge housing tracts on Chicago's Northwest and Southwest Sides.
The city was extensively photographed during the post—war years by street photographers such as Richard Nickel and Vivian Maier. Starting in the s, in the postwar desire for new and improved housing, aided by new highways and commuter train lines, many middle and higher income Americans began moving from the inner-city of Chicago to the suburbs.
Changes in industry after , with restructuring of the stockyards and steel industries, led to massive job losses in the city for working-class people.
The city population shrank by nearly , The City Council devised "Plan 21" to improve neighborhoods and focused on creating "Suburbs within the city" near downtown and the lakefront.
It built public housing to try to improve housing standards in the city. The passage of civil rights laws in the s also affected Chicago and other northern cities.
In the s and s, many middle and upper income Americans continued to move from the city for better housing and schools in the suburbs. Office building resumed in the s.
When completed in , the Sears Tower , now known as the Willis Tower, at feet was the world's tallest building. In the early 20th century, the Chicago Traction Wars were a dominant controversy in Chicago politics.
Mayor Richard J. Daley served —, dominating the city's machine politics by his control of the Cook County Democratic Central Committee, which selected party nominees, who were usually elected in the Democratic stronghold.
Daley took credit for building four major expressways focused on the Loop, and city-owned O'Hare Airport which became the world's busiest airport, displacing Midway Airport's prior claims.
Several neighborhoods near downtown and the lakefront were gentrified and transformed into "suburbs within the city".
He held office during the unrest of the s, some of which was provoked by the police department's discriminatory practices.
Labor supply--Illinois--Chicago Region--Maps. Industries--Chicago Region--Maps. Map of Chicago showing growth of the city by annexations. Annexation Municipal government --Illinois--Chicago--Maps.
Map of Cook County, Illinois, : showing highways and forest preserves. Cook County Ill. Forest reserves--Illinois--Cook County--Maps.
Roads--Illinois--Cook County--Maps. Subdivided and occupied land in the vicinity of Chicago. Map of the Sanitary District of Chicago showing dilution system and sewage treatment projects.
Proportion of population receiving relief in Chicago by sub-communities, October, Public Welfare--Illinois--Chicago--Maps. Survey of northern and northwestern lakes.
Chicago Harbor. Nautical charts--Illinois--Chicago. Detroit, Mich. Lake Survey Office, Map of Chicago waterways.
Blue line print Railway commutation time in the region of Chicago, March Per cent increase and decrease of population from to Chicago : Chicago Housing Authority, .
Mortgage risk classified by districts : [Chicago, Illinois]. Chicago Tribune. April 6, Sifakis, Carl, The Mafia Encyclopedia , 2nd ed.
Retrieved June 17,